Experimental and Extreme are the two words that best describe the approach of all the artists of the Avant-garde movements and their artists.
- Look at the technologies they explored during their lifetime as inspiration for the work they did.
- Look at the Modernist approach to form and choice of materials that characterized their work.
Cubism should be seen as a foundation and seminal movement of art and design, which influenced the other Avant Garde movements which followed. Do not pick artists from the cubist movement to be one of the subjects in your assignment, but do look for ways in which Cubism influenced your artists.
Below are key artists and a brief description of the main art/design movements of this era. Names in bold are major players and perhaps easier to find research on them. You may also choose another designer from one of the Modernist Era movements that I have not listed here.
Use these links to download a PowerPoint slide show containing images from some of the major designers of the Avant Garde.
Use these links to read about the Avant–garde in the original form of their manifestos.
CUBISM (fragmentation, multi-view, subdued color) the art movement which influence all of art and design movements which have followed. You may not use Cubism or one of the Cubist artists in this book. They are instead to be thought of as major influences on the other designers that came after them.
FUTURISM or CUBO-FUTURISM (dynamism, motion and movement, loud powerful machine; locomotive, race cars, airplanes)—Italian
- Flippo Marinetti— (Futurist Words in Freedom)
- Giacoma Balla—“Dynamism of a dog on a leash”
- Unberto Boccioni—“The City Rises”
- Carlos Cara—free word painting
- Gino Severini— Painter
- Antonio Sant’Elia—Architect
DADA—, (hobbyhorse, nonsense, anti-war, anti-art)—Switzerland, (ZURICH), Germany, (Berlin), U.S. (New York), France, (Paris)
Recommended Dada links
- Hugo Ball
- Tristan Tzara
- Jean (Hans )Arp
- Sophie Taeuber-Arp
- Richard Huelsenbeck
- Marcel Duchamp—readymades
- Andre Breton
BERLIN DADA (social political messages)
- Kurt Schwitters — MERZ (commerce) collage
- Hannah Hoch—collage
- Max Earnst
- George Grosz
- Max Beckman
- John Heartfield—Helmut Herzfelde, political & social protest, collage
- Otto Dix
CONSTRUCTIVISM— (asembling the page layout similar to the construction of a building)—Russian
- El Lissitzky — PROUN—the great constructor, “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge”
- Alexander Rodchenko—experimental layout and photography
- Vladimir Tatlin—Monument to the 3rd International (tower)
- Naum Gabo, & Anton Pevsner—sculptors (brothers )
DE STIJL (the style, neo Plasticism)—Holand
- Piet Mondrian—red, blue, yellow squares surrounded with heavy black line
- Theo Van Doesburg
- Piet Zwart—typography and photomontage
- Gerrit Reitveld
BAUHAUS becomes known as the Swiss style after the war (form follows function, structure, organization unified design, non-decorative, sans serif type)—German
- Laszlo Moholy-Nagy—photomontage
- Mies van der Rohe—architecture, the glass box
- Oskar Schlemmer—2nd bauhaus logo
- Wassily Kandinsky—mystical and spiritual abstract painting
- Walter Gropius—architecture, chicago skyscraper
- Paul Klee—spontaneity, child-like drawing
- Joseph Albers—color theory
- Joost Schmidt—Bauhaus at Weimar poster
- Gunta Stölzl (5 March 1897 – 22 April 1983) was a German textile artist who played a fundamental role in the development of the Bauhaus school’s weaving workshop. As the Bauhaus’ only female master she created enormous change within the weaving department as it transitioned from individual pictorial works to modern industrial designs. Gunta at the Met
- Jan Tschichold—(The new Typography, lines of continuity)
- Herbert Bayer—lowercase only
RUSSIAN THEATER/SET/COSTUME DESIGN
- Léon Bakst (Russian: Леон (Лев) Николаевич Бакст, Leon (Lev) Nikolaevich Bakst) – born as Leyb-Khaim Izrailevich (later Samoylovich) Rosenberg, Лейб-Хаим Израилевич (Самойлович) Розенберг (27 January (8 February) 1866– 28 December 1924) was a Russian painter and scene and costume designer. He was a member of the Sergei Diaghilev circle and the Ballets Russes, for which he designed exotic, richly coloured sets and costumes.
- Vorticism: avant-garde art at the Tate Britain, London (gadling.com)
- Cubism (dorjikhandu.wordpress.com)