Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
Color produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive color. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue.
ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead.
Against the Grain
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
Coating in a water-base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.
Author’s Alterations (AA’s)
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA’s are considered an additional cost to the client usually.
(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight in the United States and Canada.
In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also called ream weight and substance weight (sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight.
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
An enlargement, usually used with raphic images or photographs
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because ‘blueline’ is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
Usually inexpensive, photographic proof from negatives where all colors are shown in blue (or another color) is called a blueline. The negatives used for the printing plates are exposed to a photosensitive paper to produce the image on the blueline. A blueline is a type of contact proof, so named because it is created by having the negative come in contact with a special type of paper.
A description or commentary of an author or book content positioned on the book jacket.
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
The main text of work not including the headlines.
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over again.
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
(1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of paper.
Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been sold. Also called less carton.
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a metallic powder.
Build a Color
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an overlap is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint build.
Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
Burst Perfect Bind
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
To subcontract for a service that is closely related to the business of the organization. Also called farm out. Work that is bought out or farmed out is sometimes called outwork or referred to as being out of house.
C1S and C2S
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.
(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.
Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.
Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images caused by tracking.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking.
(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed, finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells.
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
Color Control Bar
Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.
Color Electronic Prepress System
Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS.
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found in nature.
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation.
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation.
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors. Also called color comprehensive and comp.
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season.
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim.
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100.
One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to hold a digital file to reduce the disk space the file requires and allow it to be processed or transmitted more quickly.
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called tool.
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.
Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range.
Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Device Independent Colors
Hules identified by wavelength or by their place in systems such as developed by CIE. ‘Device independent’ means a color can be described and specified without regard to whether it is reproduced using ink, projected light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Dot created by a computer and printed out by a laser printer or imagesetter. Digital dots are uniform in size, as compared to halftone dots that vary in size.
Direct Digital Color Proof
Color proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled device without needing to make separation films first. Abbreviated DDCP.
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds attractive.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
Double Black Duotone
Duotone printed from two halftones, one shot for highlights and the other shot for midtones and shadows.
To print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink.
To expose film or a plate twice to different negatives and thus create a composite image.
A method of recording electronically (disk, CD, floppy) using a modified frequency to allow more data storage.
Double Dot Halftone
Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones and highlights.
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.
Considered as “dots per square inch,” a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job. Also called pulldown.
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by overexposure during camera work.
Halftone in which contrast has been increased by eliminating dots from highlights.
Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
Using metal plates in the printing process, which are etched to .15mm (.0006 in) creating a right reading plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to paper without the use of water.
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
Dual-purpose Bond Paper
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Offset press made for quick printing.
Electronic Front End (Electronic Composition)
General term referring to a prepress system based on computers.
Electronic Image Assembly
Assembly of a composite image from portions of other images and/or other page elements using a computer.
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.
Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates and stencils.
Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up
Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.
Encapsulated PostScript file
Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file.
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.
Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher than smooth.
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.
Abbreviation for envelope.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. Also called comparable stock.
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.
Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and halftone with screen.
Fast Color Inks
Inks with colors that retain their density and resist fading as the product is used and washed.
Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.
Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter) or more.
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly. Good fit means that all images register to other film for the same job.
Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed. Copyrighting, photography and design are fixed costs.
(1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic plates with raised images. Also called aniline printing because flexographic inks originally used aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo.
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image, while allowing the image to show through.
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
Folio (page number)
The actual page number in a publication.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product.
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called register bond.
Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it ink or water.
For Position Only
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
In the case book arena, the binding process which involves folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.
Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds fluids such as ink, varnish or water. Also called duct.
Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the nonimage area. Also called dampener solution.
Four-color Process Printing
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper.
A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black. Also called full-range black.
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.
(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.
Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also called stacked.
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.
(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.
Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
Graduated Screen Tint
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.
Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.
Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced by a computer.
Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.
Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.
Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and made using paste-up techniques, as compared to electronic mechanical.
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.
Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.
Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-color process.
Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the color-control options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also called HVS.
Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.
A specific color such as yellow or green.
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,
Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards. Also called surprint.
Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray
Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.
Ink Jet Printing
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Department of an agency, business or association that does printing for a parent organization. Also called captive printer and in-house printer.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.
Color proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, as compared to an overlay proof. Also called composition proof, laminate proof, plastic proof and single-sheet proof.
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.
Job Lot Paper
Paper that didn’t meet specifications when produced, has been discontinued, or for other reasons is no longer considered first quality.
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.
A vibration machine with a slopping platform to even-up stacks of printed materials.
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the ‘K’ in CMYK.
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.
Key Negative or Plate
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.
Kiss Die Cut
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut.
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a Substrate.
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Register where ink colors overlap slightly, as compared to butt register.
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.
Lay Flat Bind
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie fully open. (Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding.)
The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records. Also called record paper.
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
In North America, 8 1/2′ x 11′ sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called block printing.
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
Substance in trees that holds cellulose fibers together. Free sheet has most lignin removed; groundwood paper contains lignin.
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
Proof of a halftone or color separation that is not assembled with other elements from a page, as compared to composite proof. Also called first proof, random proof, scatter proof and show-color proof.
Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester.
Low Key Photo
Photo whose most important details appear in the shadows.
Machine Glazed (MG)
Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
One of the four process colors.
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Order for paper that a mill makes to the customer’s specifications, as compared to a mill order or stock order.
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing. Also called force card.
An author’s original form of work (hand written, typed or on disk) submitted for publication.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a “dummy.”
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore isolating the remaining part. Also called knock out.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled using a computer.
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.
Mil 1/1000 Inch
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils.
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also called flying ink.
A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
Paper size (7′ x 10′) and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy.
A specific type of glue used for books binding and personal pads needing strength.
Printing in more than one ink color (but not four-color process). Also called polychrome printing.
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.
Signatures assembled inside one another in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to gathered. Also called inset.
Gray with no hue or cast.
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and “a short life use.”
Flaw in a photograph or halftone that looks like a drop of oil or water.
In the book binding process, a stage where air is expelled from it’s contents at the sewing stage.
Web press without a drying oven, thus not able to print on coated paper. Also called cold-set web and open web.
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to paper.
Light blue that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may be used to preprint layout grids and write instructions on mechanicals. Also called blue pencil, drop-out blue, fade-out blue and nonrepro blue.
Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons, golf balls and ashtrays, known as advertising specialties or premiums.
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
(1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.
Open Prepress Interface
Hardware and software that link desktop publishing systems with color electronic prepress systems.
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside pages) as compared to inner form.
Halftone in which background has been removed or replaced to isolate or silhouette the main image. Also called knockout halftone and silhouette halftone.
To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Any sheet larger than 11′ x 17′ or A3.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary, to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical. The mechanical produced is often called a paste-up.
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by the customer.
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
On a “dummy” marking where the perforation is to occur.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Engraving done using photochemistry.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called pel.
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
(1) In quick printing, a process camera that makes plates automatically from mechanicals. (2) In commercial lithography, a machine with a vacuum frame used to expose plates through film.
Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
(1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press.
Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink color. Also called color station, deck, ink station, printer, station and tower.
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto sheets, traditionally measuring about 9′ x 12′.
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of “cotton rags.”
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
Raster Image Processor (RIP)
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Products, such as fabrics, illustrations and photographic prints, viewed by light reflected from them, as compared to transparent copy. Also called reflex copy.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than noninked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates that yield images in register.
General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of copying used by designers, engineers, architects or for general office use.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image ‘reverses out’ of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written. Also describes a photo whose orientation looks like the original scene, as compared to a flopped image.
Printing press which passes the substrate between two rotating cylinders when making an impression.
Round Back Bind
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared to flat back bind.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.
Placing signatures or inserts in magazines or catalogs according to demographic or geographic guidelines.
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Art with elements that print in the base color on one surface and elements that print in other colors on other surfaces. Also called preseparated art.
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allow ink to pass through some portions and block ink from passing through other portions. Serigraphic printing includes screen and mimeograph.
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called offset.
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins.
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able to absorb moisture.
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the “printed run” for a variety of reasons.
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color.
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink fountain and printing them off the same plate. Split fountains keep edges of colors distinct, as compared to rainbow fountains that blend edges.
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
Spot Color or Varnish
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.
Standard Viewing Conditions
Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on a bright day. Also called lighting standards.
Statistical Process Control
Method used by printers to ensure quality and delivery times specified by customers. Abbreviated SPC.
Step and Repeat
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the film or plate.
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant’s warehouse.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
Score created by pressing a string against paper, as compared to scoring using a metal edge.
Alternate term for basis weight, usually referring to bond papers. Also called sub weight.
In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image on a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as compared to additive color. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos and colors created by inks on paper.
Subtractive Primary Color
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these are known as process colors because, along with black, they are the inks colors used in color-process printing.
Paper calendered using alternating chrome and fiber rollers to produce a smooth, thin sheet. Abbreviated SC paper.
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.
Swash (Swatch) Book
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in specific colors in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.
Tagged Image File Format
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Target Ink Densities
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
Concerning a printing project’s basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use ‘text’ to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.
Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion).
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
Total Area Coverage
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film. Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through. Also called chrome, color transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated TX.
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Technique of making color separations that increases the amount of cyan, magenta or yellow ink in shadow areas. Abbreviated UCA.
Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC)
A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and publish a (c) indicating registration.
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. “Two up” or “three up” means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Brand name for high-contrast photographic paper.
Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies, color separations or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also Standard Viewing Conditions.
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also called degrade.
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.
Abbreviation for volatile organic compounds, petroleum substances used as the vehicles for many printing inks.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators to rethread the press.
Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement of a piece of artwork.
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.
With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.
An image that is backwards when compared to the original. Also called flopped and reverse reading.