Minimum Typographic Management
(Or what you always, always, always must do.)
Additional Resource Links:
- Special Characters
- Typographic Variables
- Choosing Typefaces
- Choosing and Matching Typefaces
- Hypenation and Justification
- Line Length
- Non-lining Numerals and Old Style Figures
Observing these rules will not guarantee that your design will be without error or a masterpiece, but it is a first step in the right direction without which you will certainly not create professional level design.
Refer to this as a sort of check list or reminder of the many options available to you as a typographer but sometimes forget and also tips on how to correctly apply them.
(Key commands are for Mac)
- First edit your text in MS Word
- Use Spell and Grammar check, dictionary spell check also, proofread
- Find and Replace fi with ﬁ ligatures (shift + option + 5 or shift + option + 6)
- Use Alternative Characters
- Find and Replace double spaces with single spaces between sentences
- Use correct dashes:
- Hyphen, only hyphenated words (directly from keyboard) –
En dash, between durations of time (option + dash) –
Em dash, everything else (shift + option + dash) —
- Use Correct Typographer’s or curly quotes and apostrophe’s. You can set these options as a preference or one of the following key combinations (shift + option + open or close bracket).
- Use a baseline grid based on text leading to create unified layout
- Use Character and Paragraph Style Sheets to control typographic treatments.
- Use master Pages for common elements.2. Place or import your text into inDesign or Illustrator for final layout
- Use glyphs pallet from the Type menu to locate these
(example: pinon should be piñon, resume should be résumé, facade should be façade)
- For all programs (System Preferences>>Language and Text>>Input Sources>> check Keyboard and Character Viewer, Show Input menu in Menu bar then go to the Language and Text icon in the menu bar & select Show Keyboard Viewer, holding down the shift and/or shift + option keys will reveal the alternative character map of your keyboard for your chosen font)
- If using a large Initial Cap letter then you must use some form
of Diminuindo following it.
- Line length (measure) is correct when between 40 – 60 characters, or between 1 1/2 to 2 alphabets in length of your chosen font
- Increase leading for sans-serif type.
- Kern Display type (headings, subheadings) and also any dates or numerals that occur even within text type. Kern around dashes. The goal for all kerning is optical evenness.
- Avoid or eliminate Typographic Widows and Orphans
- Use no more than two typeface families on any one design, not counting identity marks/typefaces.
- Use typographic variables to create forms of emphasis, indicate hierarchy, and
vary typographic color. Avoid the default settings. Create clear visual hierarchy between all typographic elements or groups.
- Convert display type to outlines for final printing and moving files between computers.
- Eliminate uneven word spacing when using justified type alignment by adjusting any combination of the following; type size, typeface, tracking. The settings you create for one paragraph must be consistently applied to all other similar paragraphs.